current research | curriculum
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development plan (internal)
Research: Climate forcing
global atmospheric dust load influences the radiation budget
of the Earth and modifies climate. From a modelling perspective,
the largest uncertainty associated with all climate change
drivers is from the effects of radiative forcing by aerosol
particles suspended in the atmosphere [e.g., IPCC, 2007].
The aim of this project is to develop an improved understanding
of how physical properties of aerosol particles alter the
global balance of incoming and outgoing radiation, and
ultimately, how this influences climate. The main objective
of this research is to investigate how micro-scale properties
of aerosols (size, shape, mineralogy) affect radiative
transfer and to determine if the treatment of aerosol radiative
effects in current general circulation models (GCM) requires
The project will involve: (a) improvement
of existing radiative code to account for dust particle
characteristics; (b) development
of a global data set of dust properties that can be used
in conjunction with existing emission models; and (c) application
of the improved radiative scheme to simulate the impact of
dust on regional and global forcing of (i) modern and (ii)
past climates. In (a), a series of experiments will be performed
to evaluate the importance of particle size, shape and mineral
composition on radiative transfer. Sensitivity testing will
be carried out using a simple forward model (based on MODTRAN)
developed to corroborate satellite-based volcanic ash retrievals
(VAR), which predicts the radiance spectrum at the top of
the atmosphere after passing through a cloud layer with specified
aerosol characteristics. A module that describes particle
shape will be coupled to the model. Modelled radiances will
be validated using volcanic ash retrievals for a selection
of satellite-observed volcanic clouds. In (b), a novel observational
atmospheric dust loading database will be developed that
covers a short period (1-2 years) of recent time: the VAR
will be modified to account for all mineral dust types [e.g.
Gu et al., 2004] and MODIS imagery will be analysed over
a 1-2 year period to provide a robust estimate of present-day
atmospheric dust loading. Using a geographic resolution of
0.5° latitude-longitude and averaging over 2 month intervals,
it should be possible to characterize inter-annual variability.
In addition, an established record of atmospheric dust through
geologic time (e.g., DIRTMAP) will be applied in the final
part of the project. In (c), the effects of particle characteristics
will be evaluated on both regional and global scales through
modification of the radiative transfer scheme in a designated
GCM, taking atmospheric dust load constraints from both the
satellite-based modern-day dust record developed in this
project, and a database such as DIRTMAP. Additionally, the
climatic consequences of supervolcanic eruption will be investigated
using a Quaternary eruption as a case study (e.g., Mount
Mazama eruption, ~6.8 ka; Toba eruption, ~74 ka).
It is anticipated that collaborations will be established
with the Hadley Centre, UK, and Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace,
France. This project (ER 5) contributes to GREENCYCLES science
objective 6 (Quantify impacts of vegetation and climate changes
on atmospheric dust, and its feedbacks on CO2 and climate).
IPCC (2007), Summary for Policymakers, in Climate Change
2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working
Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change, edited by S. Solomon, D. Qin, M.
Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L.
Miller, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom
and New York, NY, USA.
Gu, Y., W. I. Rose, and G. J. S. Bluth (2003), Retrieval
of mass and sizes of particles in sandstorms using two MODIS
IR bands: A case study of April 7, 2001 sandstorm in China,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15), 1805, doi:10.1029/2003GL017405
Wen, S., and W.I. Rose (1994), Retrieval of sizes and total
masses of particles in volcanic clouds using AVHRR bands
4 and 5, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5421-5431.
Researcher (PostDoc) within the GREENCYCLES MC-RTN.
School of Geographical Sciences / Department of Earth
Sciences, University of Bristol, UK.
|9/2002 – 6/2007
Student (Geology – M.S. / Ph.D.)
Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and
Sciences, Michigan Technological University, USA.
dissertation: On Water in Volcanic Clouds.
M.S. thesis: Laboratory
Investigation of Heterogeneous Ice Formation and Application
to Atmospheric Clouds.
|5/2002 – 8/2002
Hawaii Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
|10/1997 – 6/2001
||MSci. (Hons) in Geology
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol,
MSci. dissertation: Investigation of accretionary
lapilli-rich tuffs from the US1 eruption of Santorini,
Accepted or in review
A. J., S. P. Harrison, B. Maher, and Y. Balkanski
(2008), The QUEST Working Group on Dust and the future of
dust-cycle research, CLIVAR Exchanges, April 2008.
Schultz, D.M., A.J.
Durant, J.M. Straka, T.J. Garrett (2007),
Reply, J. Atmos. Sci., accepted.
W.I. Rose, S. Self, P.J. Murrow, C. Bonadonna, A.J.
Durant and G.G.J. Ernst (2007), Pyroclastic Fall Deposit from the
October 14, 1974, Eruption of Fuego, Guatemala, Bull. Volcanol.,
A.J., R.A. Shaw and W.I. Rose, Ice
Nucleation and Overseeding of Ice in Volcanic Clouds (2007),
Res. – Atmospheres, in review.
Schultz, D.M., K.M. Kanak, J.M. Straka, R.J.
Trapp, B.A. Gordon, D.S. Zrnic, G.H. Bryan, A.J.
P. M. Klein and D. K. Lilly (2006), The Mysteries of Mammatus
Clouds: Observations and Formation Mechanisms, J. Atmos.
Sci., 63(10), 2409–2435.
Shaw, R.A., A.J. Durant and Y. Mi (2005), Heterogeneous
surface crystallization observed in undercooled water. J.
Phys. Chem. B, 109, 9865-9868.
Durant, A.J., and R.A. Shaw (2005), Evaporation Freezing
by Contact Nucleation Inside-Out, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32,
Sastry (2005), Water: Ins and outs of ice nucleation, Nature,
Peer-Reviewed Conference Presentations (presenting author
Mann, C.P., H.
Delgado Granados, R. Escobar Wolf, A.J. Durant
and 10 others (2007), Earth Hazards Consortium: a Novel Approach
to Student Education in Geoscience, Eos Trans. AGU, Jt. Assem.
Suppl., Session ED05, in review.
A.J., W.I. Rose, C.J. Horwell, A.M. Sarna-Wojcicki,
E. Wan, S. Dartevelle and A.C. Volentik (2006), Reanalysis
of the Pyroclastic Fall Deposit from the 18 May 1980 Eruption
of Mount Saint Helens, USA, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall
Meet. Suppl., Abstract V33B-0656.
Servranckx, R., A.J.
Durant, A. Malo, R. D'Amours, S. Trudel
and J. Gauthier (2006), Trajectory Analysis of Volcanic Clouds
Produced by the 1992 Eruptions of Mount Spurr, Alaska, Eos
Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V22B-04.
W.I., A.J. Durant and C.J. Horwell (2006), The formation
and fate of fine volcanic ash, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall
Meet. Suppl., Abstract V21C-01.
W.I., A.J. Durant and C.J. Horwell (2006), Fate of
fine basaltic ash from subplinian eruptions of Fuego, Guatemala
1973-74, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract
A.J., M.S. Ramsey, A.J. Durant, I.P. Skilling (2006),
Multitemporal 3-D Imaging of Volcanic Products on the Macro-
and Micro- Scale, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Supl.,
C.P., H.D. Granados, A.J. Durant and 7 others (2006),
Earth Hazards Consortium: a Unique Approach to Student-Centered
Learning, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstr.
A.J., W.I. Rose, R.A. Shaw and A.B. Kostinski (2005),
A Meteorological Approach to Calculate Volcanic Cloud Parameters,
Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V31D-0648.
Shaw, R.A., and A.J.
Durant (2005), Contact
Nucleation Linked to ‘Evaporation Freezing’,
Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract A23C-0970.
A.J., Y. Mi, R. A. Shaw, G. G. J. Ernst, and W.
I. Rose (2004), Ice Nucleation by Volcanic Ash: Influence
of Composition and Morphology, paper presented at IAVCEI
General Assembly, Chile.
G.G.J., A.J. Durant, W.I. Rose, S. Self (2004), Accretionary
lapilli and water-rich eruption columns: New Constraints,
paper presented at IAVCEI General Assembly, Chile.
Shaw, R.A., A.J.
Durant, and Y. Mi (2004), Ice Nucleation
by Volcanic Ash: Contact Nucleation Inside Out, paper presented
at IAVCEI General Assembly, Chile.
Mi, Y., A.J. Durant, and R.A.
Shaw (2004), Laboratory Measurements
of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation: Contact Nucleation Inside-Out,
paper presented at 14th Int. Conf. on Clouds and Precip.,
Durant, A.J. (2003), Ash Aggregation in Volcanic Plumes
during Dispersal and Fall-out, paper presented at 1st Meeting
of the IAVCEI Working Group on Modeling Tephra-Fall Hazards,
Cities on Volcanoes 3, Hilo, Hawaii.
Durant, A.J., W.I. Rose, P.J. Baxter, and C.J. Horwell (2003),
Mt. Hudson Revisited 12 Years on: What are the Long-Term
Health Effects from Fine Ash Produced During the 1991 Eruption?,
paper presented at Cities on Volcanoes 3, Hilo, Hawaii.
Durant, A.J., D.A. Swanson, and W.I. Rose (2002), Accretionary
Lapilli Beds in the Keanakako'i Ash: Footprint Bearing Beds
not 1790 in Age, Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl.,
Durant, A.J., and G.G.J. Ernst (2002), Role of Water and
Ice in Ash Aggregation: Constraints from the Upper Scoriae
1, Santorini, Greece, paper presented at Volcanic and Magmatic
Studies Group Annual Meeting, London, UK.
Durant, A.J., and G.G.J. Ernst (2001), Role of Water and
Ice in Ash Aggregation: Constraints from the Upper Scoriae
1, Santorini, Greece, Eos Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet.
Suppl., Abstract V42D-1064.
Educational Outreach (non-peer reviewed)
Durant, A. J., C. P. Mann, J. Stix and W. I. Rose (2007),Virtual
Course Promotes Student-Directed Learning, Geological Society
of America Geoscience Education Division Newsletter, Summer