The overall science objective of GREENCYCLESII (GCII) is to substantially improve current understanding of the impacts of climate-biogeochemistry feedbacks on the evolution of the Earth system over the next two centuries. The closely related training objective is to foster the next generation of Earth system scientists through immersion in an exciting, sophisticated, and highly relevant joint research programme. Earth System Models (ESMs) are key tools for understanding and predicting Earth system behaviour, particularly with respect to the potential impacts of rising concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). GCII aims to improve substantially the predictive capability of ESMs through linked data and modelling activities.

GCII Research

The specific science objectives of GCII are: (i) production of a series of key global datasets and their application to the improvement and assessment of a range of global models; (ii) improvement in understanding of critical marine and terrestrial processes; and (iii) rigorous quantitative assessment of possible future Earth system states given the combined constraints of process understanding and global data. The full range of model complexities available across the network will be utilised in order to exploit their different strengths, such as the analytical tractability and rapid completion rates of simple models, to the regional forecasts and detailed physical parameterisations of the most complex GCMs. Processes likely to be important for future Earth system feedbacks will be studied in detail, including mid-latitude droughts, high- latitude feedbacks, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, fire, vegetation physiology and dynamics, clouds, land use, air-sea CO2 exchange, marine phytoplankton dynamics, and the marine nitrogen (N) cycle.

GCII Research

The science work plan is broken down into five overarching work packages (WPs):